Chapter I - THE GREAT DUALISTIC THEMES OF ANTIQUITY
This first volume on dualism in the Middle Ages opens with a recapitulation of the dualistic themes of Antiquity as they were discussed in Volumes I-IV. It is also brought forward to where direct our attention in the Middle Ages. (Length of this chapter, with notes, = 73 pp.)
Chapter II - UNIVERSALISM CONTRA PARTICULARISM : THE BYZANTINE RECONQUEST OF THE WEST
First the foundation of the new capital, Constantinople, is related; the Eastern Roman Empire became the Byzantine Empire.
After the fall of theWestern Roman Empire the Byzantine Emperors considered themselves the rulers over the whole of the Roman Empire, that is, also of the West. The West, however, was divided between a number of Germanic tribes, the kings of which would recognize Byzantine supremacy only nominally. Justininian I decided to reconquer the West in order to make the empire one again.
He succeeded in conquering North Africa, the realm of the Vandals, and Italy, that of the Ostrogoths, but only at the cost of long and bloody wars. Only the southern tip of Spain was occupied.
Soon after the conquest of Italy the Langobards invaded the peninsula, occupying part of it. Thus the fragmentation of Italy began, which ended only in 1870. (Length of this chapter, with notes, = 35 pp.)
Chapter III -THE SLAV THREAT AND AVAR IMPERIALISM
On the Balkans the Byzantine Empire got to cope with Slav invasions. Slav tribes established themselves on Byzantine territory; their rulers recognized the supremacy of Constantinople only nominally.
The tribe of the Avars lived in what is now Hungary. They repeatedly threatened the Byzantine Empire; they raided the Balkans and more than once appeared before the walls of Constantinople. (Length of this chapter, with notes, = 19 pp.)
Chapter IV - TWO MIGHTY IMPERIALISMS IN CONFLICT : THE STRUGGLE BETWEEN BYZANTIUM AND THE PERSIANS
The Byzantine Empire and the Sasanian Empire bordered on each other in the Euphrates-Tigris region. They considered each other's existence as a constant threat to themselves. Many long and bloody wars were fought between them, especially in the days of the Persian Emperor Chosroes II, who conceived of himself as the successor of such great conquerors as Cyrus II and Xerxes. The Byzantines finally succeeded in keeping their grip on Asia Minor. (Length of this chapter, with notes, = 34 pp.)
Chapter V - BYZANTINE HOOLIGANISM
The empire had its internal problems also. The racing contests in the Hippodrome of the capital had given rise to two parties, the Green and the Blue, rivalling with each other. It often came to blows between them. Once these riots developed into a formidable uproar, in the course of which a great part of the capital went up in flames. It was bloodily suppressed. (Length of this chapter, with notes, = 25 pp.)
Chapter VI - RELIGIOUS DISSENSIONS
The empire was officially Roman Catholic, and the emperors were not tolerant of deviant groups. Their policy was that of Caesaropapism, that is, that they wanted to be secular and ecclesiastical rulers at the same time. There were many non-orthodox sects. First of all there were the Jews and the Samaritans, to whom the emperors were not friendly disposed; repressive measures led to rebellions.
There were still many pagans and other heterodox groups. Here too the official policy was repressive. The largest deviant sect was that of the Monophysites; they had endless trouble with the government, but succeeded in surviving. (Length of this chapter, with notes, = 51 pp.)
Chapter VII - ARABIA BEFORE ISLAM
A short description of pre-Islamic Arabia: land, geography, population, social customs, religion. (Length of this chapter, with notes, = 8 pp.)
Chapter VIII - MOHAMMED
A life of the founder of Islam: his youth in Mecca and his marriage with Khadija, his later wives, his revelations and the first preaching of Islam in Mecca, his flight from Mecca to Medina and the organization of the first Muslim community there, how he from a rather shy merchant became a successful war leader, his conquest of Mecca and the subjection of Arabia, his death. (Length of this chapter, with notes, = 31 pp.)
Chapter IX - ISLAM AS A RELIGION
The fundamental tenets of the Muslim creed are treated, with the duties of the Muslim, especially the pilgrimage to Mecca, and Muslim law with its prescripts and prohibitions.
Special attention is paid to the relationship of the faithful with Allah and to the significance of fatalism. The place of Islam in the religious world is discussed, and also the question of whether Islam is dualistic. (Length of this chapter, with notes, = 23 pp.)
Chapter X - MUSLIMS, JEWS AND CHRISTIANS
The relations of Islam with the Jews and the Christians, the two other monotheistic religions, both of them also based on a holy book, were problematic, even dualistic. Especially Christians should not be there; they had to pay a tax for the privilege of surviving. (Length of this chapter, with notes, = 24 pp.)
Chapter XI - `RELIGIOUS IMPERIALISM'
The leading idea of Islam was that the whole world had to be conquered had to be for Allah. This led to the jihad, the holy wars, in which the Arabs were incredibly successful. In only one century they conquered large parts of the Byzantine Empire: Palestine, Syria, Egypt, North Africa, and also Spain; they also brought down the Sasanian Empire and extended their rule almost to the Indus. (Length of this chapter, with notes, 29 pp.)
This volume contains a Manual, maps, chronologies, a Bibliography and a General Index.
Published in 2000 by J.C. Gieben, Publisher.
ISBN 90 5063 208 4