[P. alexandri: Moustached parakeet]
[P. calthorpae: Emerald-collared parakeet]
[P. caniceps: Blyth's parakeet]
[P. columboides: Malabar parakeet]
[P. cyanocephala: Plumheaded parakeet]
[P. derbyana: Derbyan parakeet]
[P. echo: Mauritius parakeet]
[P. exsul: Newton's parakeet]
[P. himalayana: Slatyheaded parakeet]
[P. intermedia: Intermediar parakeet]
[P. krameri: Ringnecked parakeet]
[P. longicauda: Long-tailed parakeet]
 [P. roseata: Blossomheaded parakeet][P. wardi: Seychelles parakeet] 

Psittacula eupatria [Linné 1766]

Alexandrine Parakeet

1. Psittacula eupatria eupatria (Linné 1766)

Alexandrine Parakeet

Description: Green; cheeks and nape washed faintly grey-blue; cocks often only have narrow stripe of grey-blue to nape; broad cheek-stripe and narrow line from cere to eye black; broad band to nape pink; abdomen yellowish-green; dark purple-red patch to wing-coverts; upperside of middle tail-feathers blue-green with green base and yellow tips, outer tail-feathers green; underside of tail yellow; bill red with yellow tip; iris yellowish-white; feet grey.

Hen without black cheek-stripe and pink band to nape; plumage generally slightly duller; middle tail-feathers on average shorter.

Immatures as hen, adult plumage develops at 18 months, completed by 32 to 36 months.

Length: 58 cm, wing length 189 - 215 mm, tail length 215 - 355 mm.

Distribution: Southern India North to Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh; Sri Lanka.

2. Psittacula eupatria nipalensis (Hodgson 1836)

Nepalese Alexandrine Parakeet

Description: As eupatria, but breast and abdomen feathers of both sexes with marked grey-white tinge; cheeks and nape suffused with blue; broad pink band to nape; larger.

Length: 62 cm, wing length 200 - 240 mm, tail length 286 - 328 mm.

Distribution: Eastern Afghanistan, Western Pakistan, Central and Northern India, Nepal, Eastern Pakistan, Bhutan and Assam.

3. Psittacula eupatria magnirostris (Ball 1872)

Andaman Alexandrine Parakeet

Description: As eupatria, but breast and abdomen feathers in both sexes with grey-white tinge; broad pink band to nape; blue tinge to nape above pink band mostly very restricted, not occurring in some birds; shoulder patch lighter in many birds; bill larger and heavier; slightly larger.

Length: 60 cm, wing length 200 - 225 mm, tail length 250 - 347 mm.

Distribution: Andaman Islands

4. Psittacula eupatria siamensis (Kloss 1917)

Laos Alexandrine Parakeet

Description: As eupatria, but back of head and nape washed pale blue, extending to crown in some birds; cheeks yellow-green; band to nape narrow and pinker; shoulder patch more reddish; slightly smaller; feet yellowish.

Length: 56 cm, wing length 179 - 205 mm, tail length 200 - 298 mm.

Distribution: Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, northern and western Thailand.

5. Psittacula eupatria avensis (Kloss 1917)

Burmese Alexandrine Parakeet

Description: As eupatria, but top of head and nape yellowish-green; blue tinge resticted to cheeks and absent from nape; band to nape narrow and pinker.

Length: 58 cm, wing length 194 - 220 mm, tail length 281 - 336 mm.

Distribution: Cachar district in Assam to Amherst, Burma.


1.Psittacula e. eupatria Hen and Cock
Photo: Z. Rana

2.Psittacula e. nipalensis Hen and Cock
Photo: Z. Rana

3.Psittacula e. magnirostris Cock
Photo: Th. Arndt

4.Psittacula e. siamensis Cock and Hen
Photo: Z. Rana


5.Psittacula e. avensis Cock
Photo: Z. Rana

Psittacula e. eupatria
Psittacula e. nipalensis
Psittacula e. magnirostris
Psittacula e. siamensis
Psittacula e. avensis
  


Habitat:
Dry and humid forest to 800 m; in localities also to 1,600 m; mangroves, farmland and open country with trees; also in urban areas, parks and gardens; occasionally forages in fruit and coconut plantations.

Status: Only common in localities, rare or only to be observed seasonally in large parts of distribution area.

Behaviour: In pairs or small groups outside breeding season; gathers in evening in larger flocks - occasionally more than one thousand birds - on groups of trees or section of forest; tremendous screeching at dawn as small groups then fly off to feeding areas; cautious and shy; group forms closed formation on flight to feeding areas; flight swift and direct, often high and with slow, rhythmic wing-beats; seasonal migration in some regions; call loud, screaming screech, but deeper than Ring-necked Parakeet (Psittacula krameri).

Call: Call loud, screaming screech, but deeper than Ring-necked Parakeet (Psittacula krameri).

Natural diet: Seeds, nuts, fruits, berries, leaf buds, flowers and nectar (Salmalia, Butea, Erythrina, Bassia latifolia flowers); causes considerable damage to grain, rice and maize fields as well as fruit plantations where more fruit than required for feeding taken.

Nesting: Breeding season from November to April; nests in large trees; occasionally also in large wall crevices or under eaves; prefers dead palms and softwood tress such as Salmalia malabarica, in which parakeets often chew out hollows; old woodpecker and barbet nest holes also used; these are usually excavated further by parakeets; sometimes breeds in colony; several pairs breed in one tree; nest lined with decaying wood; clutch 2 to 4 eggs; egg measures 34.0 x 26.9 mm.

Aviculture: Medium-noisy to noisy parakeet; active; very hard chewer; hardy and tough when acclimatised; incompatible with other birds; only initially shy; quickly gets used to keeper and can become confiding.

Accommodation: Outside flight at least 4.5 x 1 x 2 m with adjoining shelter; minimum temperature 5°C; metal construction necessary; provide roosting box 30 x 30 x 60 cm; bottom line with decayed wood.

Diet: Seed mix of sunflower, safflower, buckwheat, various millets, canary grass seed, oats and hemp; small quantity of pine- and peanuts; plenty of fruit (apple, grapes, elderberry), greenfood (dandelion, flowers, chickweed) and vegetables (celery, rose hips, half-ripened maize, carrot, sweet peppers, cucumber); eggfood and biscuit for rearing.

Clutch: 3 - 4 eggs.

Incubation: 28 days.

Breeding: Often achieved and not difficult; in courtship display cock perches close to hen; head turned side to side and wings raised; cock hops around hen and bows to her; isolate pairs; breeding can begin as early as February, therefore place nestbox inside shelter to avoid egg binding; clutch 2 to 4 eggs; incubation 28 days; fledging period 7 weeks; young independent after 21 days.

Mutations: Several mutations have been established; Lutino, Blue, Greygreen, Darkgreen; Note that these are pure Alexandrine parakeet mutations and not hybrids.



Psittacula e. nipalensis Cock
Photo: Z. Rana

Psittacula e. eupatria Cock and Hen
Photo: Z. Rana

Psittacula e. nipalensis Hen
Photo: Z. Rana
[P. alexandri: Moustached parakeet]
[P. calthorpae: Emerald-collared parakeet]
[P. caniceps: Blyth's parakeet]
[P. columboides: Malabar parakeet]
[P. cyanocephala: Plumheaded parakeet]
[P. derbyana: Derbyan parakeet]
[P. echo: Mauritius parakeet]
[P. exsul: Newton's parakeet]
[P. himalayana: Slatyheaded parakeet]
[P. intermedia: Intermediar parakeet]
[P. krameri: Ringnecked parakeet]
[P. longicauda: Long-tailed parakeet]
 [P. roseata: Blossomheaded parakeet][P. wardi: Seychelles parakeet] 

All photographs are copyrighted by their respective owners.
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