Editor's Note: The following chapter on Crimean Tatars from J. Otto Pohl's Ethnic Cleansing in the USSR, 1937-1949 (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1999) as well as the Selected Annotated Bibliography are included here with the permission of the publisher. For additional information about the book, please see the publisher's Web page.


Crimean Tatars

(Chapter 10, pp. 109-118)

The Crimean Tatars were not taken into military service; they were excluded from peasants' work; they had to live in outlying districts. They had no passports. Why? From what arose such persecution of an entire people?
–Il'ia Liuksemburg, "Novyi Vavilon na bergakh Syrdar'i" [New Babylon on the Banks of the Syrdar] Posev, September 1973

The German military's occupation of the Crimean peninsula relied in part upon local Tatar self-defense units (Selbschutze). These units engaged in anti-partisan warfare against Soviet irregular units operating behind German lines. When the Soviet Red Army reoccupied the Crimean peninsula, the Stalin regime imposed a ruthless retribution against the Crimean Tatars for the actions of these self-defense units. The Stalin regime deported the entire Crimean Tatar population to special settlements in Uzbekistan as retaliation against the Tatar self-defense units.

The Crimean Tatars lived on the Crimean peninsula from the Middle Ages until May 1944. The Turkic groups that later fused to become the Crimean Tatars first settled the peninsula as soldiers of Batu Khan's Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Crimean Tatars are Sunni Muslims of the Hanafi school and speak a Kipchak Turkic language.

In 1428, the Crimean Khanate became an independent political entity from the Golden Horde.(1) Haci Giray became the first Khan of this new state.(2) In 1478, the Ottoman Empire invaded the Crimean Khanate, and between 1478 and 1772, the Crimean Khanate was a protectorate of the Porte. During this period the Crimean Khanate carried out frequent slave raids against Russia and Poland. The slave trade formed the backbone of the Crimean Khanate's economy. The Crimean Tatars made lucrative profits from slave raids, both by selling captured slaves to the Ottoman Empire or other Muslim states and by ransoming them back to Russia or Poland.(3) Only in the 18th century, under Tsar Peter I, did the Russian government cease to pay ransoms for the return of captured slaves.(4) These slave raids greatly disrupted the development of agriculture in the Ukrainian steppe.(5) Many Russians and Ukrainians have never forgiven the Crimean Tatars for their centuries of slave raids against Muscovy and Poland.

The image of the Crimean Tatar as a raider and slave trader has remained strong in the minds of many Slavs. The Crimean Tatars also fought with the Ottoman Empire against the Russian Empire in the Caucasus and Eastern Europe. This historical legacy made it easy for many Soviet citizens to believe the Stalinist charges against the Crimean Tatars that they collaborated with Nazi Germany to fight against the Red Army and enslave the Slavic population of the Crimean peninsula.

In addition to the Crimean Tatar's slave raids into the Ukrainian steppe, the very geographic position of the Khanate blocked Russian economic and military expansion. The Crimean Khanate controlled the southern shores of Ukraine and prevented Russia from creating a maritime presence in the Black Sea. The strategic importance of the Crimean peninsula to Russian commerce and naval projection convinced the Russian government that it needed to defeat the Crimean Khanate. In 1687 and again in 1689, Prince Vasilli Golitsyn led unsuccessful military campaigns against the Crimean Khanate.(6) Despite these two defeats, just seven years later in 1696, Peter I defeated the Crimean Tatars and annexed the Black Sea port of Azov.(7) This victory was short lived, however. During the Russo-Turkish War of 1710-1711, the Tatars recaptured Azov.(8) It was another 75 years before the Russian Empire successfully occupied the Crimean Khanate.

In 1771, Russia invaded the Crimean peninsula.(9) Between 1772 to 1783, the Crimean Khanate was a protectorate of the Russian Empire. In 1783, Empress Catherine II annexed the territory of the Crimean Khanate directly to the Russian Empire.(10) The Russian Empire exercised direct authority over the Crimean peninsula and its inhabitants from 1783 until its demise in 1917.

Crimean Tatars participated in the Bolshevik Revolution and the building of the USSR in the 1920s and 30s. On 18 October 1921, the SNK of the RSFSR created the Crimean ASSR.(11) Despite the fact that Crimean Tatars only constituted 25% of the population of the Crimean ASSR in 1923, the Soviet government granted this minority considerable cultural autonomy.(12) By 1938, Crimean Tatars formed only 19.36% of the peninsula's population with 218,179 people (13) (see Table 10.1). Crimean Tatar, along with Russian, was an official state language of the Crimean ASSR.(14) The Crimean Tatars had 144 functioning village soviets in the Crimean ASSR.(15) The Crimean ASSR possessed four Crimean Tatar teachers' schools, journals, museums, libraries, and theaters.(16) In Simferpol, Tavrida University possessed an oriental institute that specialized in the language and literature of the Crimean Tatars.(17) Crimean Tatar culture flourished during the era of korenzatsiia [nativization].

Table No. 10.1 1
Ethnic Composition of the Crimean ASSR, 1938
Nationality Number Percentage
Russians 558,481 49.6%
Crimean Tatar 218,179 19.36%
Ukrainian 154,120 13.7%
German 65,452 4.6%
Greek 20,652 1.8%
Bulgarian 15,353 1.4%
Armenian 12,873 1.1%
Other 29,276 2.6%
Total 1,126,429 2 100% 3

1 N.F. Bugai, L. Beria - I. Stalinu: "Soglasno vashemu ukazanaiiu..." (Moscow: "AIRO XX," 1995), p. 143.
2 Although this number appears in the book cited, the sum of the column is 1,074,386, a difference of 52,043.
3 Because of the error in the previous column, the sum of the individual percentages is 94.16%.

Soviet rule over the Crimea during the 1930s, however, became increasingly repressive towards the Tatar minority. The forced collectivization of agriculture in the Crimean peninsula took a heavy toll upon the Crimean Tatars. The OGPU deported thousands of Crimean Tatars accused of being kulaks to the Urals and far northern areas of the Soviet Union.(18) The collectivization of agriculture in the Crimea devastated the orchards, vineyards, and livestock tended by the Crimean Tatars. It also led to famine in the Crimea during 1932 and 1933. The collectivization of agriculture and its aftermath turned many Crimean Tatars against the Stalin regime.

During the late 1930s, the Stalin regime terminated korenzatsiia in the Crimea in favor of a policy of repression towards the Crimean Tatars. The Soviet government began shutting down Crimean Tatar cultural institutions in 1935. Between 1935 and 1938, the Soviet authorities eliminated 14 of the 23 Crimean Tatar language publications in the peninsula.(19) The Soviet government did not content itself with eliminating the expressions of Tatar culture in the Crimea. During the purges from 1937 to 1938, they executed a large portion of the Crimean Tatar intelligentsia. This persecution drove many Crimean Tatars to support any alternative to Soviet rule. The German and Romanian occupation of the Crimean peninsula offered the Crimean Tatars their only alternative to Stalin.

German and Romanian military units under the command of General Manstein advanced into the Crimean peninsula in September 1941. Between November 1941 and April 1944, the German military occupied almost all of the Crimean peninsula. Only Sevastopol held out longer. Sevastopol came under German occupation in July 1942. The Nazi occupation treated most of the Crimean population harshly. Among their crimes in the Crimea was the execution of 91,678 people from October 1941 to April 1942, including most of the peninsula's Jewish and Gypsy populations.(20) A large number of Crimean Tatars, however, welcomed the Germans as liberators.(21) During this time Crimean Tatars fought both in German organized military units and Soviet units. After the reoccupation of the Crimea by the Soviet Red Army, the Stalin regime accused all the Crimean Tatars of being Nazi collaborators and deported them to Uzbekistan. The exile of the Crimean Tatars to Central Asia was a national tragedy on a grand scale.

The Crimean Tatars became suspect in the eyes of Stalin as early as May 1942. On 29 May 1942, Stalin issued GKO resolution GOKO-1828, which ordered the deportation of Germans, Romanians, Greek passport holders, and Crimean Tatars from the cities and population centers of Krasnodar Kray and Rostov Oblast.(22) This resolution allocated the NKVD two weeks to accomplish this task.(23) The Stalin regime cleared those areas of the Black Sea coast remaining under its control of Crimean Tatars and other suspect nationalities during 1942.

The German military sought to exploit the sympathy of segments of the Crimean Tatar population to secure their occupation of the peninsula. In January 1942, they began to recruit Crimean Tatar volunteers from POW camps to form self-defense battalions.(24) By 15 February 1942, the Germans had outfitted 1,632 Crimean Tatars into 14 companies and six battalions.(25) During the course of World War II, the German occupation forces in the Crimea organized close to 20,000 (10% of the Crimean Tatar population) Tatars into self-defense battalions.(26) The German military administration of the Crimea, under General Manstein, sought to rely upon the Crimean Tatar self-defense battalions to help garrison the peninsula. The German military used these Tatar self-defense battalions to combat partisan activities in the Crimea. Opposing the German occupation of the Crimea and the self defense forces were not only Russians and Ukrainians, but also many Crimean Tatars. Out of 3,783 Soviet partisans in the Crimea in early 1944, 630 were Crimean Tatars.(27) Other Crimean Tatars provided assistance in the form of food and shelter to Soviet partisans at great personal risk. Another 20,000 Crimean Tatars fought in the Soviet Red Army against Nazi Germany; eight of these soldiers even received the order of the Hero of the Soviet Union.(28) As many Crimean Tatars actively fought against the Nazis as participated in German sponsored military units.

The Soviet government began to prepare for the deportation of the Crimean Tatars soon after the Red Army recaptured the Crimea from the Germans. The Soviet military successfully recovered the Crimean peninsula on 11 May 1944.(29) As early as 22 April 1944, Kobulov and Serov informed Beria that 20,000 Crimean Tatars had deserted the Red Army.(30) The actual number of Crimean Tatar deserters was much smaller. Between 1941 and 1944, only 479 soldiers from the Crimean ASSR either deserted the Red Army or failed to report for military service after being conscripted.(31) On 25 April 1944, Beria reported to the GKO that the "Tatar National Committee" under D. Abdureshidov recruited spies to work behind Soviet lines, mobilized volunteers for German-organized Tatar military units, and deported non-Tatars from the Crimea to Germany for forced labor.(32) He also mentioned that the NKVD had arrested 178 "German-fascist collaborators" in the Crimea.(33) After several more weeks of investigative work in the Crimea by the NKVD, Beria issued another report to the GKO. On 10 May 1944, Beria informed Joseph Stalin that the NKVD had arrested 5,381 "anti-Soviet elements" in the Crimea as of 7 May 1944.(34) During the course of these arrests the NKVD confiscated 5,995 rifles, 337 machine guns, 31 mortars, and a large number of grenades and bullets.(35) This telegram also repeated the allegation that during 1944, over 20,000 Crimean Tatars deserted the Red Army in order to fight with the German occupation forces.(36) Beria's telegram endorsed the deportation of all Crimean Tatars to special settlements in Uzbekistan in order to punish these alleged acts of treason.(37) This telegram sealed the fate of the Crimean Tatars.

The next day, 11 May 1944, the GKO issued resolution N 5859 ss, signed by Joseph Stalin.(38) This resolution accused the Crimean Tatars of a litany of crimes against the Soviet state and people during World War II.

In the period of the Fatherland war many Crimean Tatars betrayed the Motherland, deserted from units of the Red Army defending the Crimea, and turned over the country to the enemy, joined German formed voluntary Tatar military units to fight against the Red Army in the period of occupation of the Crimea by German-Fascist troops, participated in German punitive detachments, Crimean Tatars were particularly noted for their brutal reprisals towards Soviet partisans, and also assisted the German occupiers in organizing the forcible sending to German slavery and mass destruction of Soviet people.

Crimean Tatars actively collaborated with the German occupying powers, participating in the so called "Tatar National Committees" organized by German intelligence and were extensively used by the Germans to infiltrate the rear of the Red Army with spies and diversionists. "Tatar National Committees," in which the leading role was played by White Guard-Tatar émigrés, with the support of the Crimean Tatars directed their activity at the persecution and oppression of the non-Tatar population of the Crimea and conducted work in preparation for the forcible separation of the Crimea from the Soviet Union with the assistance of the German armed forces.(39)

The Stalin regime regarded the Crimean Tatars as a treasonous nation deserving of severe collective punishment. According to Stalin and his henchmen, the Crimean Tatars actively supported Nazi Germany in its war against the Soviet people. One of the stated goals of this war was the mass extermination and enslavement of the Slavic population of the USSR. In the light of these accusations, the GKO resolved to deport the entire Crimean Tatar population to Central Asia.

1. All Tatars are to be exiled from the territory of the Crimea and settled permanently as special settlers in raions of the Uzbek SSR. The exile is assigned to the NKVD of the USSR. The NKVD USSR (Comrade Beria) is to complete the resettlement of the Crimean Tatars by 1 June 1944.(40)

The highest organ of power in the Soviet state punished the entire Crimean Tatar nation for the acts of a few.

GKO resolution 5859ss established the procedures for dealing with the resettlement of the Crimean Tatars. It included provisions for the reallocation of immovable property belonging to the Crimean Tatars, the transport of the exiles to Uzbekistan, and the establishment of special settlements for the resettled Crimean Tatars. The GKO modeled these procedures on the earlier deportation of the Volga Germans. Beria and Kaganovich received primary responsibility for carrying out the deportation of the Crimean Tatars. Each family could bring 500 kg. of personal property with them to the areas of resettlement.(41) The Soviet government took over the buildings, furniture, land, livestock, agricultural produce, and other immovable property left by the Tatars in the Crimea.(42) In exchange for this property, the Crimean Tatars were to receive receipts for future compensation. (43) The relevant Peoples' Commissariats were to submit a plan to the SNK for redeeming these receipts by 1 July 1944.(44) Despite this stipulation, however, the Crimean Tatars did not receive compensation for their lost property.(45) The Crimean Tatars permanently lost their immovable property.

GKO resolution 5859ss assigned one doctor and two nurses to each train echelon of exiles.(46) It also provided for food and boiling water each day for the deportees during transit to Uzbekistan.(47) These provisions proved inadequate for the well being of the exiled Crimean Tatars. A report from UNKVD chief of Chkalov Oblast Smitenko confirmed the inadequacy of these provisions.(48) Between 23 May and 4 July 1944, 59 echelons with 3,252 wagons and 163,632 exiled Crimean Tatars passed through the Iletsk train station.(49) During this time the NKVD removed four sick and 14 dead Crimean Tatars from the trains while stopped at Iletsk.(50) Incidents of illness and death increased sharply after reaching the special settlements in Uzbekistan.

The NKVD arrested anti-Soviet elements in the Crimea and confiscated arms in preparation for the deportation up until 16 May 1944. Beria reported on 16 May 1944 that the NKVD had arrested 6,452 anti-Soviet elements including 657 spies.(51) In combing the Crimean forests, military and operative groups detained 7,739 people and confiscated 39 mortars, 449 machine guns, 532 submachine guns, 7,238 rifles, 3,657 shells, 10,296 grenades, and 280,000 bullets.(52) Two days later, the NKVD started the deportation of the Crimean Tatars.

The NKVD began implementing GKO resolution 5859ss on 18 May 1944. Kobulov and Serov personally oversaw this operation.(53) By 8 A.M. on 18 May 1944, the NKVD had already taken 90,000 Crimean Tatars to train stations and placed 48,400 exiles on 25 echelons bound for Uzbekistan.(54) The next day, the NKVD completed moving 165,515 Crimean Tatars to train stations and placing 136,412 on east bound trains.(55) Between 18 May and 20 May 1944, 23,000 officers and soldiers of the NKVD and 9,000 operatives of the NKVD-NKGB reported loading 180,014 Crimean Tatars on 67 train echelons bound for Uzbekistan and other eastern areas of the USSR (see Table 10.2).(56) On 4 July 1944, the NKVD revised the figure of deported Crimean Tatars to 183,155.(57) The NKVD sent 151,604 of these exiles to Uzbekistan and 31,551 to eastern areas of the Russian Federation.(58) The Red Army conscripted another 6,000 Crimean Tatars into construction battalions and the Moscow Coal Trust mobilized another 5,000 Crimean Tatar workers.(59) The Soviet regime expelled a total of 194,155 Tatars from the Crimea. Within less than three days, the NKVD and Red Army forcibly removed almost the entire Crimean Tatar nation from their ancestral homeland.

Table No. 10.2 1
Location of Crimean Tatar Exiles, 6 June 1944
Territory Number of Special Settlers
Kazakhstan 2,426
Bashkir ASSR 284
Yakut ASSR 93
Gorky Oblast 2,376
Molotov Oblast 10,002
Sverdlovsk Oblast 3,591
Ivanov Oblast 548
Kostroma Oblast 6,338
Tashkent Oblast Uzbekistan 56,114
Samarkand Oblast Uzbekistan 31,829
Andizhan Oblast Uzbekistan 19,173
Ferenga Oblast Uzbekistan 16,173
Namangan Oblast Uzbekistan 13,801
Kashkadar'in Oblast Uzbekistan 9,984
Bukhara Oblast Uzbekistan 4,009
Total Uzbekistan 151,083
Total 176,746 2

1 N.F. Bugai, L. Beria – I. Stalinu: "Soglasno vashemu ukazanaiiu..." (Moscow: "AIRO XX," 1995), p. 155.
2 Although this total appears in the cited source, the sum of the column is 176,741, a difference of five.

The Stalin regime exiled most of the Crimean Tatars to special settlements in the deserts of Uzbekistan. Unhygenic conditions, lack of clean water, and overcrowding led to massive outbreaks of typhus among the Crimean Tatars. Between 21 May 1944 and 1 January 1946, 26,775 (14% of the total population) perished enroute to and in special settlements.(60) The MVD recorded the death of 44,887 Crimean Tatars, Greeks, Armenians, and Bulgarians in special settlements by 1948.(61) The NKVD and MVD do not provide a division of this figure by the individual Crimean nationalities. Crimean Tatars, however, comprised most of these deaths according to corroborating evidence. Calculations based upon population data place the number of Crimean Tatar deaths resulting from the deportation as 42,000 during the first five years of exile.(62) More than a fifth, 7,900 of these fatalities occurred during transit to the special settlements.(63) Many Crimean Tatar human right activists contend that the large number of deaths in transit and in special settlements constitute genocide. The surviving Crimean Tatar population remained exiled in Uzbekistan and other eastern areas of the USSR until after Stalin's death (see Table 10.3).

Table No. 10.3 1
Location of Crimean Tatar Exiles, 1 January 1953
Territory Number of Special Settlers
Kazakhstan 2,511
Uzbekistan 128,348
Krasnoyarsk Kray 119
Kirghizia 366
Altay Kray 34
Kemerovo Oblast 209
Novosibirsk Oblast 4
Irkutsk Oblast 70
Omsk Oblast 6
Molotov Oblast 8,438
Tomsk Oblast 6
Sverdlovsk Oblast 2,488
Tiumen Oblast 4
Chelybinsk Oblast 29
Tadzhikistan 6,711
Khabarovsk Kray 82
Komi ASSR 11
Bashkir ASSR 299
Yakut ASSR 123
Amur Oblast 1
Tula Oblast 2,846
Kurgan Oblast 2
Buriat-Mongolia ASSR 1
Orenburg Oblast 9
Kirov Oblast 8
Mari ASSR 7,652
Kostroma Oblast 2,243
Moscow Oblast 706
Far North Kray 175
Kubishev Oblast 663
Karelian ASSR 1
Ivanov Oblast 365
Maritime 1
Turkmenistan 5
Volga Tatar ASSR 24
Murmansk Oblast 2
Chuvash ASSR 66
ITLs and MVD Construction 43
Total 165,259 2

1 V.N. Zemskov, "Zakliuchenye, spetsposelenstsy, ssyl'noposelentsy, ssylne, i vyslanye," Istoriia SSSR, no. 5, 1991, table 3, p. 155.
2 Although this figure appears in the cited article, the sum of the column is 164,671, a difference of 588.

The death of Stalin on 5 March 1953 brought about a liberalization of the Soviet regime. The restoration of the rights of the Crimean Tatars, however, was slow and piecemeal. On 5 July 1954, the SNK released all children 16 and under, including Crimean Tatars, from special settlements.(64) The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet released the remainder of the Crimean Tatars from special settlements on 20 April 1956.(65) The Soviet government, however, still considered the Crimean Tatars guilty of treason and did not allow them to return to the Crimea or offer them compensation for the property confiscated during the deportation.(66) Only on 5 September 1967, did the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet revoke the charges of treason against the Crimean Tatars.(67) Even after 1967, however, the Soviet government did not allow the Crimean Tatars to return to their homeland.

Despite the formal restoration of their rights, the Crimean Tatars remained exiled. It was not until the advent of glasnost in the late 1980s that the Crimean Tatars managed to return to their homeland in any significant numbers. In the 1990s this migration to the Crimea became a flood. By 1994, the number of Crimean Tatars living in the Crimean peninsula surpassed the number living in the Crimean ASSR prior to the deportation. Despite the return of many Crimean Tatars to their homeland, many of them still face discrimination and harassment by the local authorities and Russian population.

Stalin's deportation of the Crimean Tatars is one of the most extreme examples of ethnic cleansing and collective punishment in modern history. Tens of thousands of innocent men, women, and children died in the deserts of Central Asia as a result of the deportation. Hundreds of thousands of more were deprived of their homeland for decades.


Notes

(Chapter 10, pp. 165-166)
1. Alan Fisher, The Crimean Tatars (Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution, 1978), p. 4.
2. Ibid.
3. Ibid., p. 27.
4. Ibid., p. 40.
5. Ibid., p. 39.
6. Ibid., p. 50.
7. Ibid.
8. Kazemzaden, "Russian Penetration," p. 243.
9. Fisher, Crimean Tatars, p. 55.
10. Ibid., p. 68.
11. Bugai, Soglasno, p. 142.
12. Fisher, Crimean Tatars, p. 138.
13. Bugai, Soglasno, p. 143.
14. Fisher, Crimean Tatars, p. 140.
15. Bugai, Soglasno, p. 142.
16. Ibid.
17. Ibid.
18. V.N. Zemskov, "Syd'ba 'Kulatskoi ssylki' (1930-1954 gg.)" [Fate of "Kulak exiles" (1930-1954], Otechestvennaia istoriia, no.1, 1994, table no. 1, p. 119. The OGPU exiled 4,325 families from the Crimean ASSR during 1930 and 1931. They sent 2,772 of these families to the Urals and 1,553 to the Far North. Zemskov does not give a break down by nationality of these exiles.
19. Fisher, Crimean Tatars, p. 147.
20. Nekrich, Punished Peoples, pp. 15-16.
21. Fisher, Crimean Tatars, p. 153.
22. Document reproduced in Andreevich and Georgievna, Istoriia rossiiskikh nemstev, p. 171.
23. Ibid.
24. Nekrich, Punished Peoples, pp. 20-21.
25. Ibid., p. 20.
26. Bugai, Soglasno, p. 146; and Fisher, Crimean Tatars, p. 155.
27. Bugai, Soglasno, p. 146.
28. Fisher, Crimean Tatars, p. 161.
29. Bugai, "K voprosu," p. 138.
30. Bugai, Ikh nado deportirovat', doc. 2, p. 131.
31. Ibid., p. 286. This number is the total number of deserters and shirkers from the territory, and includes non-Tatars.
32. Bugai, Ikh nado deportirovat, doc. no. 3, pp. 131-132.
33. Ibid.
34. Bugai, Deportatsiia, p. 107.
35. Ibid.
36. Ibid.
37. Ibid.
38. Document reproduced in Alieva, Tak eto bylo, vol. III, pp. 62-65.
39. Ibid.
40. Ibid.
41. Ibid.
42. Ibid.
43. Ibid.
44. Ibid.
45. Alieva, Tak eto bylo, vol. III, p. 62, fn. 1.
46. Document reproduced in Alieva, Tak eto bylo, vol. III, pp. 62-65.
47. Ibid.
48. Bugai, Ikh nado deportirovat', doc. 15, pp. 139-140.
49. Ibid.
50. Ibid.
51. Bugai, Ikh nado deportirovat', doc. 10, p. 137.
52. Ibid.
53. Bugai, "K voprosu," p. 138.
54. Bugai, Ikh nado deportirovat', doc. 11, p. 138.
55. Bugai, Ikh nado deportirovat', doc. 12, p. 138.
56. Bugai, Ikh nado deportirovat', doc. no. 13, pp. 138-139, and doc. no. 21, p. 144.
57. Bugai, Ikh nado deportirovat', doc. no. 20, p. 144.
58. Ibid.
59. Bugai, Ikh nado deportirovat', doc. no. 13, pp. 138-139.
60. Nekrich, Punished Peoples, pp. 112-114.
61. Bugai, Ikh nado deportirovat', doc. 48, pp. 264-265.
62. Rywkin, Moscow's Lost Empire, table 8, p. 67.
63. Ibid.
64. Zemskov, "Massovoe," p. 10.
65. Bugai, Ikh nado deportirovat', doc. 57, p. 273; document also reproduced in Alieva, Tak eto bylo, vol. III, p. 72.
66. Ibid.
67. Document reproduced in Alieva, Tak eto bylo, vol. III, p. 73.

Copyright © 1999 by J. Otto Pohl


Selected Annotated Bibliography from J. Otto Pohl's Ethnic Cleansing in the USSR, 1937-1949


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